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National Income Accounting Formulas Pdf Free

national income accounting formulas pdf free

 

National Income Accounting Formulas Pdf Free >> http://shurll.com/bljxg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

from...the...employer...and...spent...the...same...in...paying...for...food,...lodging,...etc.(B)...Problems...in...Product...Method:...The...following...problems...arise...in...the...computation...of...national...income...by...product...method:...1....For...instance,...in...order...to...find...out...the...per...capita...income...for...2001,...at...current...prices,...the...national...income...of...a...country...is...divided...by...the...population...of...the...country...in...that...year.Similarly,...for...the...purpose...of...arriving...at...the...Real...Per...Capita...Income,...this...very...formula...is...used.This...concept...enables...us...to...know...the...average...income...and...the...standard...of...living...of...the...people....Now...they...are...simply...financial...transactions...and...represent...claims.But...the...commission...or...fees...charged...by...the...brokers...in...the...repurchase...and...resale...of...old...shares,...bonds,...houses,...cars...or...scooters,...etc....But..the..depreciation..of..machines,..plants..and..other..capital..goods..is..not..deducted..from..GNP.Sixth,..the..profits..earned..or..losses..incurred..on..account..of..changes..in..capital..assets..as..a..result..of..fluctuations..in..market..prices..are..not..included..in..the..GNP..if..they..are..not..responsible..for..current..production..or..economic..activity.For..example,..if..the..price..of..a..house..or..a..piece..of..land..increases..due..to..inflation,..the..profit..earned..by..selling..it..will..not..be..a..part..of..GNP...This..is..the..true..net..annual..income..or..revenue..of..the..country..or..national..dividend...Price..Changes:National..income..by..product..method..is..measured..by..the..value..of..final..goods..and..services..at..current..market..prices...Third,..the..durable..goods..generally..keep..changing..hands..leading..to..a..change..in..their..ownership..and..value..too.It,..therefore,..becomes..difficult..to..measure..in..money..the..service-value..of..these..goods..from..the..point..of..view..of..consumption...If,...instead...he...keeps...some...produce...for...his...self-consumption,...it...has...money...value...which...must...be...included...in...national...income.4....This.leads.to.the.problem.of.double.counting.which.leads.to.the.overestimation.of.national.income.3..

 

7...crores)...are...deducted...from...the...net...domestic...product...of...Rs....which...cannot...be...estimated...accurately...in...money...terms....Disclaimer...9....On...the...other...hand,...if...they...are...used...as...intermediate...goods,...meant...for...further...production,...they...would...not...be...included...in...national...income....This..is..one..of..the..ways..to..avoid..double..counting...

 

To...this...is...added,...the...estimated...interest...on...that...private...capital...which...is...invested...and...not...borrowed...by...the...businessman...in...his...personal...business....Since.the.net.value.added.gets.distributed.as.income.to.the.owners.of.factors.of.production,.GDP.is.the.sum.of.domestic.factor.incomes.and.fixed.capital.consumption.(or.depreciation).Thus.GDP.at.Factor.Cost.=.Net.value.added. .Depreciation.GDP.at.factor.cost.includes:.(i).Compensation.of.employees.i.e.,.wages,.salaries,.etc.(ii).Operating.surplus.which.is.the.business.profit.of.both.incorporated.and.unincorporated.firms..There..is..always..the..possibility..of..including..a..good..or..service..more..than..once,..whereas..only..final..goods..are..included..in..national..income..estimates...Importance..of..National..Income..Analysis:..The..national..income..data..have..the..following..importance:..1...Similarly,.any.imported.component,.such.as.raw.materials,.which.is.used.in.the.manufacture.of.export.goods,.is.also.excluded.Thus.GDP.by.expenditure.method.at.market.prices.=.C .I. .G. .(X..M),.where.(X-M).is.net.export.which.can.be.positive.or.negative.(B).GDP.at.Factor.Cost:.GDP.at.factor.cost.is.the.sum.of.net.value.added.by.all.producers.within.the.country.. 55be9034d4

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